Examples of sex linked disorders
Sex linked is a trait in which a gene is located on a sex chromosome. In humans, the term generally refers to traits that are influenced by genes on the X chromosome. This is because the X chromosome is large and contains many more genes than the smaller Y chromosome. In a sex-linked disease, it is usually males who are affected because they have a single copy of X chromosome that carries the mutation. In females, the effect of the mutation may be masked by the second healthy copy of the X chromosome.
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Sex-linked Diseases: the Case of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) | Learn Science at Scitable
Sex linkage describes the sex-specific patterns of inheritance and presentation when a gene mutation allele is present on a sex chromosome allosome rather than a non-sex chromosome autosome. In humans, these are termed X-linked recessive , X-linked dominant and Y-linked. The inheritance and presentation of all three differ depending on the sex of both the parent and the child. This makes them characteristically different from autosomal dominance and recessiveness. There are many more X-linked conditions than Y-linked conditions, since humans have several times as many genes on the X chromosome than the Y chromosome.
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Some genetic conditions are caused by mutations in a single gene. These conditions are usually inherited in one of several patterns, depending on the gene involved:. Many health conditions are caused by the combined effects of multiple genes described as polygenic or by interactions between genes and the environment. Such disorders usually do not follow the patterns of inheritance listed above.
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